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Studies on the effect of immunostimulants on shrimp and prawn are still at an infant stage. ß-glucan have received attention in recent years for their ability to increase disease resistance in shrimp and prawn because the limitation of the specific immune response of these animals and the nature of the disease agents make the development of effective vaccine impractical. ß-glucan have been successfully used to increase the resistance of Penaeus japonicus against vibriosis [ 94 ], further studies using Penaeus monodon showed protection against vibriosis, white spot syndrome virus and Vibrio damsela and V. harveyi [ Laurence Dacade Badely Spiked Ankle Boots Sale Official Site U2NKO9csU
] and also enhancement of survival and immunity during brood stock rearing [ 96 ]. All these effects were caused by direct impact on haemocytes via stimulation of phagocytosis, cell adhesion and superoxide anion [ 97 ]. Surprisingly the glucan-induced resistance is maternally transmitted [ 98 ]. Surprising data has been obtained in the fresh water crayfish Pacifastatus lenieusculus . The injection of glucan caused a shortterm severe loss of haemocytes, followed by a rapid recovery due to accelerated release of cells from the haematopoietic organs.

Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae showed enhanced growth and resistance to V. alginolyticus by dietary administration of ß-glucan. Cheng et al. [ 99 ] reported that dietary administration of sodium alginate enhances the immune ability of white shrimp L. vannamei and increase its resistance against V. alginolyticus infection. Vitamin C has also plays a key role in animal health as an antioxidant by inactivating damaging free radicals producing through normal cellular activity and diverse stressors. Lightner et al. [ 100 ] reported that inadequate dietary levels of vitamin C in juvenile shrimp may result in black dead syndrome, reduced growth rates, poor feed conversion ratios, decreased resistance to stress and reduced capability to heal wounds. According to Merchie et al. [ 101 ], vitamin C plays a role as immunostimulants, as evidenced by the ability of P. monodon postlarvae and juveniles to avoid baculovirus and to resist disease caused by V. harveyi and saline shock. However, the mode of action of vitamin C as an immunostimulant is not clear, although its antioxidant role and in consequence cell protection could be a mechanism to preserve haemocytes, improving the general immunological system of shrimp. Therefore results suggest that although the shrimp immune system is nonspecific, it would be possible to enhance disease resistance against pathogens in shrimp by careful and regular use of immunostimulants.

Immunostimulants appear to be most promising and useful tools for prophylactic treatment of farmed fish and shrimp. It is safer than chemotherapeutics and their range of efficacy is wider than vaccination. However, these compounds will not replace vaccines proper nutrition or good management techniques. The strength of these compounds appear to lie in their ability to enhance larval culture before the specific immune system matures and the animals can be vaccinated and able to improve nonspecific immune function against a broad spectrum of pathogens.

6) In discussing alternative hypotheses of the mechanism of cortical inhibition, including disynaptic thalamocortical inhibition (see Discussion, paragraph four) and disynaptic corticocortical inhibition (see Discussion, paragraph six), you should include relevant literature (e.g. rat in vivo thalamic stimulation), instead of marginally related work (slice studies that used white-matter or cortical stimulation, hippocampal studies, etc.). Care should also be taken to cite the literature accurately. For example, you argue that "central thalamus at different frequencies can lead to distinct behavioral responses" and cite Morison and Dempsey (1942), but Dempsey and Morison did not study behavior. Galarreta and Hestrin (1998) did not study thalamocortical responses (please correct this in the subsection “Central thalamus stimulation frequency controls cortical excitation/inhibition balance”).

References cited:

Cruikshank, S.J., H. Urabe, A.V. Nurmikko, and B.W. Connors, Pathway-specific feedforward circuits between thalamus and neocortex revealed by selective optical stimulation of axons. Neuron, 2010. 65( 2 ): p. 230-45.

Galarreta, M. and S. Hestrin, Frequency-dependent synaptic depression and the balance of excitation and inhibition in the neocortex. Nat Neurosci, 1998. 1( 7 ): p. 587-94.

[Editors’ note: the author responses to the first round of peer review follow.]

We were very pleased to see that two of the three reviewers found our manuscript suitable for publication, with such comments as “This work has several important contributions,” “The work has enormous translational potential,” and “The study is relevant for both basic neuroscience… and also for the applied, clinical implications.”

We have fully addressed the few criticisms offered by the reviewers through additional clarification in writing, experiments, and analyses in the attached revised manuscript. Below, we provide a point-by-point response to the comments by Reviewers #2 and #3. In the instances where we omitted citing key literature, we sincerely apologize for the oversight and have addressed the issue carefully.

Given the overwhelmingly positive reviews from two of the three reviewers, and our direct rectification of the two issues noted in our rejection letter (frequency vs. pulse width effects, and interpretation of zona incerta recordings) with additional experiments, we request the opportunity to have this revised manuscript re-evaluated by the reviewers.

We thank the reviewer for their critical feedback of our writing and have revised the manuscript accordingly to address the listed concerns. Specifically, in the Introduction, we provide context for our investigation of zona incerta, citing prior demonstrations of its influence on attention and arousal, and explain that its possible involvement in central thalamus arousal circuits has not yet been studied. Furthermore, in the Abstract, we more explicitly justify the investigation as one to explore the mechanism underlying the negative BOLD signal observed in cortex.

1. Stores that sell physical goods

These are your typical online retailers. They can include apparel stores, homeware businesses, and gift shops, just to name a few. Stores that sell physical goods showcase the items online and enable shoppers to add the things they like in their virtual shopping carts. Once the transaction is complete, the store typically ships the orders to the shopper,though a growing number of retailers are implementing initiatives such as in-store pickup.

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2. Service-based e-tailers

Services can also be bought and sold online. Online consultants, educators, and freelancers are usually the ones engaging in ecommerce.

The buying process for services depends on the merchant. Some may allow you to purchase their services straightaway from their website or platform. An example of this comes from , a freelance marketplace. People who want to buy services from Fiverr must place an order on the website before the seller delivers their services.

Some service providers, on the other hand, require you to get in touch with them first (i.e. book a consultation) to determine your needs. Web design company Blue Fountain Media is one example of a business that does this.

3. Digital products

Ecommerce is, by nature, highly digital, so it’s no surprise that many merchants sell “e-goods” online. Common types of digital products include ebooks, online courses, software, graphics, and virtual goods.

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Another effective way to classify ecommerce sites? Look at the parties participating in the transaction. These typically include:

1. Business to consumer (B2C) – Transactions happen between businesses and consumers. In B2C ecommerce, businesses are the ones selling products or services to end-users (i.e. consumers).

Online retail typically works on a B2C model. Retailers with online stores such as Gianvito Rossi Marnie Leather Booties Supply Extremely Online DbNlOGS16p
, Macy’s , and are all examples of businesses that engage in B2C ecommerce.

2. Business to business (B2B) – As its name states, B2B ecommerce pertains to transactions conducted between two businesses. Any company whose customers are other businesses operate on a B2B model.


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